When designing optimal preflop defending ranges, our main goal is to prevent the preflop raiser from being able to open wider than he should theoretically be able to.
We should be more likely to defend our hands by calling in position and re-raising out of position.
3-bet bluffs need folds around 67 to 70 percent of the time to show an immediate profit, and a player should defend around 40 to 50 percent of his 3-bets when facing a 4-bet.
4-bet bluffs need folds around 50 to 60 percent of the time to yield an immediate profit and should call between 50 to 60 percent of the time when facing a 5-bet jam.
4-bet bluff需要在对手50-60%的频率下弃牌才能够获利，而需要50-60%的频率去跟注对手的5-bet all in。
5-bet bluffs usually only need to succeed around 40 to 50 percent of the time to be profitable if they are randomized with the right bluffing hands. Usually, hands like ace-rag suited and low pocket pairs work best as 5-bet bluffs.
5-bet bluff通常只需要在40-50%的频率成功就已经有利可图了，通常像A碎和小口袋对是非常好的5-bet bluff的手牌。
Three-bets on average punish the worst hands in our opponent’s opening range more severely than calling does since calling allows him to see a flop.
The expected value of 3-betting and 4-betting strong but not super premium hands like ace-king and queens in position is probably much lower against an optimal opponent than players expect. With these hands, many players are making a mistake by re-raising when they should call instead.
We must make sure we use calling ranges which can connect on many different flop textures so our range will not be transparent. However, it’s also okay to use calling ranges which miss on low board textures since 8 high and lower boards are quite uncommon.
Hand values can change drastically based on what range they are facing. For example, king-nine offsuit may do well as a cold call in the big blind against a button open since the opening range includes many weaker king-x and nine-x hands. But it may work poorly as a 3-bet since 3-betting makes many dominated hands fold, and out of position, marginal pairs are tough to play for a large pot against a strong range.
A hand chart will not be perfect until the game of poker is actually solved. But they are certainly useful at identifying leaks and helping newer players. That is it’s more important to understand why hands go into certain ranges than to memorize a hand chart.
Hand Chart在整个扑克问题被解决之前是不可能真正完美的。但是它能够非常好地被用来发现策略的漏洞并且帮助新手玩家快速入门。但真正重要的是理解为什么Hand Chart是这样被构建的，而不是简单地记住所有的手牌组合。